Alcohol poisoning for many years has been the leading household poisoning in the absolute number of deaths. About 98% of deaths occur before the provision of medical and often without calling an ambulance.

Acute alcohol poisoning is usually associated with the intake of ethyl alcohol or alcoholic beverages with an ethyl alcohol content of more than 12%.

Alcoholic drinks (beer, wine, vodka, etc.) contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Ethyl alcohol is also found in some medicines, antiseptics, disinfectants, lotions, colognes and perfumes.

Ethanol concentration in beverages and foods:

  • Alcohol distillates – 40-50%
  • Wine – 10-20%
  • Beer – 2-10%
  • Perfumery liquids – 40-60%.

According to the mechanism of action, ethanol slows down the brain, leading to loss of consciousness, impaired respiration and cardiovascular activity. Regular use of high doses of ethanol leads to chronic alcohol poisoning, which manifests itself as a disruption in the functioning of many organs, primarily the brain, liver and heart.

Health hazard

Acute chronic poisoning can seriously damage health and even lead to death. The effect of the dose of ethanol depends on the regularity of its ingestion. A low-drinker person can be strongly influenced by such an amount of alcohol that has little effect on a chronic alcoholic. For a child, only one sip of alcoholic beverages is a serious danger.

In some cases, when the amount of alcohol consumed is too large and depresses the respiratory center of the brain, breathing becomes shallow, the pulse is rapid, and arterial pressure decreases.

Alcohol poisoning can cause serious complications. With hypertension or atherosclerosis, large doses of alcohol sometimes lead to cerebrovascular accidents, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The next day after drinking alcohol, there is a decrease in working capacity, impaired coordination and active attention, which leads to injuries.

Symptoms of acute poisoning

  • Slurred speech
  • Difficulty executing simple commands
  • Unsteady gait
  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
  • Drowsiness
  • Blurry vision or double vision
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Seizures
  • Low blood pressure
  • Lowered body temperature
  • Breathing disorder.

Chronic alcohol poisoning

  • Long-term alcohol abuse leads to the following consequences:
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Disruption of the liver, kidneys, intestines
  • Memory impairment
  • Trembling in the body
  • Deterioration of intellectual abilities

Necessary actions for acute poisoning

First aid: in case of respiratory arrest, ensure airway patency of the victim and perform artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth). If the victim is unconscious or inhibited, it is necessary to put him on his side, monitor his breathing and call an ambulance.

Out-of-hospital care for a victim of alcohol poisoning

If the poisoning occurred less than an hour ago and the victim has a clear consciousness, normal breathing, no seizures, no vomiting, it is necessary to give the victim a drink of water (up to 500 ml), induce vomiting, give activated charcoal inside in tablets up to 5 grams., And then give strong sweet tea or coffee to drink. Do not allow large amounts of fluids to be drunk at once, this can cause vomiting, which is sometimes dangerous.

It is necessary to provide assistance to the victim until he is taken to the hospital, and take adequate measures if he has:

  • Prolonged vomiting
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Urinary retention
  • Fever

Do not give anything by mouth to the victim if he is unconscious, lethargic or has seizures! In this condition, airway aspiration can occur.

Immediate go to the hospital in the following situations

  • The child suffered
  • Signs of severe poisoning
  • Suspicion of poisoning with alcohol substitutes

In order to avoid severe poisoning with alcohol surrogates, it is strictly forbidden to ingest any alcohol substitutes, unknown alcohols and medicines containing ethyl alcohol, homemade alcoholic beverages offered by random persons. You should never identify any drug by color and smell, this deceptive self-confidence can cost your life!

You should always remember a few simple tips: do not drink alcohol on an empty stomach, observe the measure, be sure to have a snack, and choose only high-quality alcoholic drinks for your festive table.

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