Alcohol poisoning is a condition that develops as a result of a person’s consumption of toxic doses of alcohol, that is, such quantities of ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol has a direct damaging effect on several organs and systems of the body.
Here are the main ones:
- Central nervous system.
- Peripheral nervous system
- Liver and kidneys.
Alcohol poisoning can be divided into acute and chronic.
Acute alcohol poisoning.
Acute alcohol poisoning is understood as an acute toxic effect on the central nervous system associated with depression of consciousness. The severity of acute alcohol poisoning is associated with the depth and complications of the coma. They classify mild, moderate and severe alcohol poisoning.
However, in our opinion, the toxic effect of ethyl alcohol on the heart can be the equivalent of acute alcohol poisoning. Acute heart failure resulting from the use of toxic doses of alcohol is also a manifestation of the toxic effects of alcohol.
Treatment of acute alcohol poisoning.
As with any other acute chemical poisoning, it is necessary to adhere to the general principles of treatment of poisoning:
- Cessation of absorption of alcohol into the blood from the gastrointestinal tract. For this, gastric lavage or enter sorbents are used. An unconscious patient often lacks a pharyngeal reflex and gastric lavage should be performed only by a resuscitator or toxicologist.
- Removal of alcohol from the body. Since ethyl alcohol is a water-soluble poison, it is well excreted through the kidneys. To reduce the toxic effect of ethyl alcohol, its concentration in the blood is reduced by the method of hem dilution. For this, crystalloid polyionic solutions and alkalinization of blood plasma with buffer solutions are used.
- Antidote therapy. There are no direct ethyl antidotes in clinical practice. But there are indirect antidotes. These include sodium bicarbonate and cordiamine.
- Also at Pacific Beach Health Center you can choose a treatment session convenient for you.
Complications of acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol.
- Aspiration of the respiratory tract with gastric contents due to vomiting or passive regurgitation in a patient in a coma.
- Syndrome of positional compression of skeletal muscles. When a person lies for a long time in one position due to impaired consciousness, the tropism of skeletal muscles is disturbed. This causes acute skeletal muscle necrosis – rhabdomyolysis. A large amount of muscle protein, myoglobin, is released into the bloodstream, which, due to its size, clogs the renal tubules. Acute renal failure with anuria occurs.
- Acute heart failure is a terminal coma.
- Hypothermia is a common cause of death in alcohol poisoning.
Chronic Alcohol Poisoning.
Chronic alcohol poisoning or intoxication occurs with the systematic use of alcohol in doses exceeding safe ones. Ethyl alcohol is a poison for all types of organs and tissues of the body. The organs and systems that are targets for alcohol are mentioned above. Chronic alcohol intoxication causes alcoholic illness. Here is some of them:
- Alcoholic liver disease. Stages: hepatosis, steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis.
- Alcoholic heart disease – alcoholic myocardial dystrophy
- Chronic alcoholic polyneuropathy.
- Wernicke acute alcoholic encephalopathy.
- Alcoholic kidney damage
- Alcoholic pancreatitis
- Alcoholic gastritis with Mallory-Weiss syndrome and so on.
- Perhaps it will be useful: withdrawal from a binge, coding from alcoholism
Not every person can say “stop” to himself! Anywhere, with friends, at a corporate party, in a restaurant. Alcohol there is designed for everyone, but the dose for each person present is individual. One will drink half a liter of vodka and “feel nothing”, but for another person, such a dose will become destructive, causing alcohol poisoning.